There are two types of batteries: electrochemical and non-electrolytic. Electrochemical batteries use the methods of electrolysis to produce electricity. They use the process of electrolysis in which one electrode builds up positive charges (positively charged ions) while the other builds up negative charges (negatively charged ions). These batteries can be made in different shapes and sizes to accommodate different designs. They work on the same principles as do the electric cars.
Non-electrolytic batteries use chemical energy instead of electricity to create a flow of current. These batteries do not need any external power source to start working. They are more efficient than electrochemical batteries but are somewhat less powerful. They cannot store a huge amount of chemical energy.
As previously stated, there have been several different types of batteries, some of which are still around today such as the alkaline cells and the nickel-cadmium batteries. In recent years the growth of fuel cells has increased. Fuel cells are made of two materials; the active material, which are the hydrogen, and the non-active material, which are the oxidizer. When the hydrogen combines with the non-active metal, the substance that results is a benign gas such as nitrogen, oxygen or carbon dioxide. With the use of fuel cells in the battery becomes a more efficient source of electrical energy by combining the chemical reactions between the hydrogen and the non-active metal.
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Polymer batteries are made from a combination of high density polymers and low-density polymers. The most common polymer used is polypropylene. These types of batteries can store three times more energy than ordinary primary batteries. As the polymers are extremely dense, they are capable of holding large amounts of charge. Unfortunately, it takes a longer time for these types of batteries to discharge their charge.
Nickel cadmium batteries are largely used in modern day devices. It was first developed as a battery for the car industry. This type of battery works by having much higher levels of NiCd and FeCd than other common primary batteries. The high levels of NiCd and FeCd produce much higher voltage than other known batteries. Due to their chemical reactions when the two materials come into contact with each other, nickel cadmium batteries release their toxic effects when they come into contact with water.
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